Nicotine, a chemical most commonly found in the plants of the Solanaceae family, can be an alkaloid and is available accumulated in the leaves of these plants, although biosynthesis of this chemical occurs in the roots of the plants. Nicotine is one of the major components of addictive plants like tobacco (0.6%-3.0%) and ‘s the reason behind their addiction in humans because of its psychoactive nature.
The follow are 10 interesting facts about nicotine.
The name nicotine comes from the scientific name of the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum. The scientific name of the tobacco plant is itself named the French ambassador to Portugal Jean Nicot de Villemain. Villeman is credited for sending tobacco seeds and plant saplings to Paris in 1560 because of its used in medicinal purposes.
Nicotine was initially extracted from the tobacco plant by German physician Dr. Wilhelm Heinrich Posselt and chemist Karl Ludwig Reimann in 1828. Following its discovery Posselt and Reimann labelled it as a poison. parhaat nikotiinipussit In fact nicotine can be an antiherbivore chemical, which causes addiction when consumed in small amounts (1mg or less) and death if used high amounts (30mg-60mg).
Nicotine is an alkaloid with the chemical formula C10H14N2. Its IUPAC name is 3[2,5-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine. It has a molecular mass of 162.12g/mol. Nicotine is really a hygroscopic liquid which is miscible with water as a nitrogenous base. Its density is 1.01g/cm3, melting point -79oC and boiling point 247oC. The nicotine molecule has a half life of 2 hours and its own metabolism is hepatic. Nicotine is also optically active and has two enantiomeric forms.
4. Nicotine as an insecticide
As already said nicotine can be an antiherbivore drug which if used huge amounts is fatal to life forms. This is why nicotine laden tobacco has been used being an insecticide even prior to the World War II. But following the WWII its usage drastically lowered due to the availability of cheap synthetic insecticides which are more easily available than tobacco and less bad for mammals. However in the recent times the hype surrounding organic farming has again increased the interest of the farmers in the usage of tobacco as a pesticide as an alternate to chemical pesticides.
5. Nicotine addiction
Our central nervous system has certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Nicotine binds to several of these and increases the amount of several neurotransmitters. Among these neurotransmitters dopamine is one particular neurotransmitter which is significantly increased during nicotine use and is responsible for the sense of euphoria and relaxation caused by the application of tobacco (nicotine) products.
6. Psychoactive ramifications of nicotine
Nicotine is a psychoactive substance as it is mood altering. It causes both euphoria and relaxation. In your body nicotine is metabolised in the liver. First after its metabolism nicotine results in the release of glucose from the liver and epinephrine from the adrenal medulla. This sudden release of glucose and epinephrine causes euphoria following the intake of nicotine. Following the initial euphoria nicotine leads to relaxation, increased alertness and sharpness by working on different neurotransmitters of your body. Nicotine also has pain relieving properties.
7. Side effects of nicotine intake
Tough it seems like nicotine is a wonderful substance to increase one’s sharpness, induce calmness and elevate one’s mood you can find more negative aspects of nicotine intake than positive. Among these the most common side effects of nicotine intake are an increased threat of hypertension and heart attacks. It really is sad that every cigarette a man smokes reduces his life span by 14 years. Moreover since nicotine has been found to affect the working of Estrogen on hippocampus, hence in the long run nicotine users are inclined to amnesia along with other related diseases.
Nicotine is considered to become more toxic than most common drugs like heroin and cocaine. More harm is performed by nicotine to our body since it is readily absorbed by the bloodstream and reaches the brain through the lungs within 7 seconds of its intake either orally or as nicotine patches.
9. Use of nicotine in medical science
Though nicotine is not a doctor’s best friend, it really is yet not his worst foe. Nicotine known because of its pain relieving properties has been researched upon to be used as a potential pain killer minus its harmful effects. Nicotine has also been found to lessen preeclampsia, allergic asthma; amongst others by acting being an anti-inflammatory agent.
10. Nicotine in literature
Nicotine has been personified in popular literature as Nick O’ Teen, a humanoid villainous character in Superman comics that was created as a part of anti-nicotine drive to educate children about the ill-effects of nicotine intake in any form.
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